Thursday, April 28, 2011

Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945 | Downwinders | Nuclear Law

a brief Fukushima update below | go to TOP OF BLOG for more recent fukushima and related nuclear news | see also: Atomic Cover-Up: The Hidden Story Behind the U.S. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945

A Time-Lapse Map of Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945 - by Isao Hashimoto

Japanese artist Isao Hashimoto has created a beautiful, undeniably scary time-lapse map of the 2053 nuclear explosions which have taken place between 1945 and 1998, beginning with the Manhattan Project's "Trinity" test near Los Alamos and concluding with Pakistan's nuclear tests in May of 1998. This leaves out North Korea's two alleged nuclear tests in this past decade (the legitimacy of both of which is not 100% clear).

as i watch this i am surprised we're all not already dead

question: what has been the increase in background radiation since the 1940's?
Over 2,000 nuclear explosions have been conducted, in over a dozen different sites around the world.
Each nation gets a blip and a flashing dot on the map whenever they detonate a nuclear weapon, with a running tally kept on the top and bottom bars of the screen. Hashimoto, who began the project in 2003, says that he created it with the goal of showing"the fear and folly of nuclear weapons." It starts really slow — if you want to see real action, skip ahead to 1962 or so — but the buildup becomes overwhelming.

@ Wikipedia

A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation CROSSROADS (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946)

List of nuclear weapons tests >

The United States conducted around 1,054 nuclear tests (by official count) between 1945 and 1992.

The Soviet Union conducted 715 nuclear tests (by official count) between 1949 and 1990, including 219 atmospheric, underwater, and space tests. Most of them took place at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan and the Northern Test Site at Novaya Zemlya. Additional tests were conducted at various locations in Russia and Kazakhstan, while a small number of tests were conducted in Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan.

The United Kingdom has conducted 45 tests (21 in Australian territory, including 9 in mainland South Australia at Maralinga and Emu Field, many others in the U.S. as part of joint test series).

France conducted 210 nuclear tests between February 13, 1960 and January 27, 1996.

The People's Republic of China conducted 45 tests (23 atmospheric and 22 underground, all conducted at Lop Nur Nuclear Weapons Test Base, in Malan, Xinjiang)

India announced it had conducted a test of a single device in 1974 near Pakistan's eastern border under the codename Operation Smiling Buddha. After 24 years, India publicly announced 5 further nuclear tests on May 11 and May 13, 1998. The official number of Indian nuclear tests is 6, conducted under two different code-names and at different times.

Pakistan conducted 6 official tests, under 2 different code names, in the final week of May 1998. From 1983 to 1994, around 24 nuclear cold tests were carried out by Pakistan; these remained unannounced and classified until 2000. In May 1998, Pakistan responded publicly by testing 6 nuclear devices.

On October 9, 2006 North Korea announced they had conducted a nuclear test in North Hamgyong Province on the northeast coast at 10:36 AM (11:30 AEST). There was a 3.58 magnitude earthquake reported in South Korea. There was a 4.2 magnitude tremor detected 240 miles north of P'yongyang. The low estimates on the yield of the test — potentially less than a kiloton in strength — have led to speculation as to whether it was a fizzle (unsuccessful test), or a genuine nuclear test at all.

There have been a number of significant alleged/disputed/unacknowledged accounts of countries testing nuclear explosives. Their status is either not certain or entirely disputed by most mainstream experts.

Tsar Bomba

Tsar Bomba (Russian: Царь-бомба) is the nickname for the AN602 hydrogen bomb, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. Also known as Kuz`kina Mat` (Russian: Кузькина мать, Kuzka's mother).

The subsequent mushroom cloud was about 64 kilometres (40 mi) high (nearly seven times the height of Mount Everest), which meant that the cloud was well inside the Mesosphere when it peaked. The base of the cloud was 40 kilometres (25 mi) wide.

Zone of total destruction of the Tsar Bomba on a map of Paris: red circle = total destruction (radius 35 kilometers), yellow circle = fireball (radius 3.5 kilometers).

The Tsar Bomb detonated at 11:32 on October 30, 1961 over the Mityushikha Bay nuclear testing range (Sukhoy Nos Zone C), north of the Arctic Circle on Novaya Zemlya Island in the Arctic Sea. The bomb was dropped from an altitude of 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi); it was designed to detonate at a height of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) over the land surface (4.2 kilometres (2.6 mi) over sea level) by barometric sensors.

The original, November 1961 A.E.C. estimate of the yield was 55–60 Mt, but since 1991 all Russian sources have stated its yield as 50 Mt. Khrushchev warned in a filmed speech to the Communist Parliament of the existence of a 100 Mt bomb (technically the design was capable of this yield). Although simplistic fireball calculations predict a ground impact, its own shock wave reflected back prevented this. The fireball reached nearly as high as the altitude of the release plane and was seen almost 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from ground zero. The subsequent mushroom cloud was about 64 kilometres (40 mi) high (nearly seven times the height of Mount Everest), which meant that the cloud was well inside the Mesosphere when it peaked. The base of the cloud was 40 kilometres (25 mi) wide. All buildings in the village of Severny (both wooden and brick), located 55 kilometres (34 mi) from ground zero within the Sukhoy Nos test range, were completely destroyed. In districts hundreds of kilometers from ground zero, wooden houses were destroyed, and stone ones lost their roofs, windows and doors; and radio communications were interrupted for almost one hour. One participant in the test saw a bright flash through dark goggles and felt the effects of a thermal pulse even at a distance of 270 kilometres (170 mi). The heat from the explosion could have caused third-degree burns 100 km (62 miles) away from ground zero. A shock wave was observed in the air at Dikson settlement 700 kilometres (430 mi) away; windowpanes were partially broken to distances of 900 kilometres (560 mi). Atmospheric focusing caused blast damage at even greater distances, breaking windows in Norway and Finland. The seismic shock created by the detonation was measurable even on its third passage around the Earth. Its seismic body wave magnitude was about 5 to 5.25. The energy yield was around 7.1 on the Richter scale but, since the bomb was detonated in air rather than underground, most of the energy was not converted to seismic waves. The TNT equivalent of the 50 Mt test could be represented by a cube of TNT 312 metres on a side, approximately the height of the Eiffel Tower.

Status of World Nuclear Forces

Federation of American Scientists -

More than a decade and a half after the Cold War ended, the world's combined stockpile of nuclear warheads remain at a very high level: more than 22,000 -
- of these, nearly 4,500 warheads are considered operational, of which nearly 2,000 U.S. and Russian warheads are on high alert, ready for use on short notice.

The exact number of nuclear weapons in each country's possession is a closely held national secret. Despite this limitation, however, publicly available information and occasional leaks make it possible to make best estimates about the size and composition of the national nuclear weapon stockpiles

J. Robert Oppenheimer - "father of the atomic bomb"

"Now, I am become Death,
the destroyer of worlds"

We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita. Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and to impress him takes on his multi-armed form and says, 'Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.' I suppose we all thought that one way or another.
-J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Enrico Fermi,[2][3] he is often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons.[4] The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945 in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." - J. Robert Oppenheimer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nuclear weapons testing
from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Four major types of nuclear testing: 1. atmospheric, 2. underground, 3. exoatmospheric, and 4. underwater
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons

Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield and explosive capability of nuclear weapons. Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that have developed nuclear weapons have tested them. Testing nuclear weapons can yield information about how the weapons work, as well as how the weapons behave under various conditions and how structures behave when subjected to nuclear explosions. Additionally, nuclear testing has often been used as an indicator of scientific and military strength, and many tests have been overtly political in their intention; most nuclear weapons states publicly declared their nuclear status by means of a nuclear test.

Smiling Buddha

On 7 September 1972, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi gave verbal authorization to the scientists at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) to manufacture the nuclear device they had designed and prepare it for a test. Throughout its development, the device was formally called the "Peaceful Nuclear Explosive", but it was usually referred to as the Smiling Buddha.

Detonation was scheduled to occur on 18 May 1974 (the official test date), Buddha Jayanti, a festival day in India marking the birth of Gautama Buddha. The code name of the project has been listed as Operation Happy Krishna according to US military resources.

The first nuclear weapon was detonated as a test by the United States at the Trinity site on July 16, 1945, with a yield approximately equivalent to 20 kilotons. The first hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Mike", was tested at the Enewetak atoll in the Marshall Islands on November 1 (local date) in 1952, also by the United States. The largest nuclear weapon ever tested was the "Tsar Bomba" of the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961, with an estimated yield of around 50 megatons.

In 1963, all nuclear and many non-nuclear states signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty, pledging to refrain from testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater, or in outer space. The treaty permitted underground nuclear testing. France continued atmospheric testing until 1974, China continued up until 1980.

Underground Tests in the United States continued until 1992 (its last nuclear testing), the Soviet Union in 1990, the United Kingdom in 1991, and both China and France in 1996. After signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996 (which had as of 2011 not yet entered into force), all of these states have pledged to discontinue all nuclear testing. Non-signatories India and Pakistan last tested nuclear weapons in 1998.

The most recent nuclear test was announced by North Korea on May 25, 2009.

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization



This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons

it's a single closed system - complex, not infinite, vulnerable

Our biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth, a closed (apart from solar and cosmic radiation) and self-regulating system. From the broadest biophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. The biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning through a process of biogenesis or biopoesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago.


Downwinder The Downwinders Movie Trailer

Downwinders refers to individuals and communities who are exposed to radioactive contamination or nuclear fallout from atmospheric or underground nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear accidents.

" we are all downwinders now "
More generally, the term can also include those communities and individuals who are exposed to ionizing radiation and other emissions due to the regular production and maintenance of nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and nuclear waste. In regions near U.S. nuclear sites, downwinders may be exposed to releases of radioactive materials into the environment that contaminate their groundwater systems, food chains, and the air they breathe. Some downwinders may have suffered acute exposure due to their involvement in uranium mining and nuclear experimentation.

Several severe adverse health effects, such as an increased incidence of cancers, non-cancerous thyroid diseases, and congenital malformations have been observed in many and diverse "downwind" communities exposed to nuclear fallout and radioactive contamination. The impact of nuclear contamination on an individual is generally estimated as the result of the dose of radiation received and the duration of exposure, using the Linear No-Threshold Model (LNT). Sex, age, race, culture, occupation, class, location, and simultaneous exposure to additional environmental toxins are also significant, but often overlooked, factors that contribute to the health effects on a particular "downwind" community.

From left: U.S. Navy Vice Admiral William H. P. Blandy, his wife, and Rear Admiral Frank J. Lowry cut a cake made in the shape of a mushroom cloud at a reception for Operation Crossroads, November 6, 1946. LIFE Gallery

The "Baker" explosion, part of Operation Crossroads, a nuclear weapon test by the United States military at Bikini Atoll, Micronesia, on july 25th 1946. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons

Operation Crossroads was a series of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in the summer of 1946. Its purpose was to investigate the effect of nuclear weapons on naval ships. The series consisted of two detonations, each with a yield of 23 kilotons: Able was detonated at an altitude of 520 feet (158 m) on July 1, 1946; Baker was detonated 90 feet (27 m) underwater on July 25, 1946. A third burst, Charlie, planned for 1947, was canceled primarily because of the Navy's inability to decontaminate the target ships after the Baker test.

{graphic content - PARENTAL ADVISORY}

Miraho -Nie chcemy atomu (DiesProduction).avi

We do not want atomic

what's on your mind?

Nuclear Law

Governance, Control, and Law

"in order to encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology"

...In 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established under the mandate of the United Nations in order to encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology, provide international safeguards against its misuse, and facilitate the application of safety measures in its use. In 1996, many nations signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty[17] which prohibits all testing of nuclear weapons, which would impose a significant hindrance to their development by any complying country.[18] Due to the strict entry into force criterion of the convention however, it had as of 2011 not entered into force.[17]...

"Atoms for Peace"

The IAEA is the world's center of cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up in 1957 as the world's "Atoms for Peace" organization within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.

the IAEA is operating on 20th century ideas - we need to wake them up now and tell them that it is no longer their job to promote nuclear energy, but to get busy, tear it down and clean up the mess.

generations to come will be tasked by the terrible burden of our nuclear legacy - we need to at least make it as easy and safe as possible as we can for them

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute,[1] the IAEA reports to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council.

The Statute of the IAEA

ARTICLE II: Objectives

The Agency shall seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. It shall ensure, so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose.

Nuclear law

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -

The term Nuclear Law refers to the law related to the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology.

Nuclear energy poses special risks to the health and safety of persons and to the environment, risks that must be carefully managed.

However, nuclear material and technology also hold the promise of significant benefits, in a variety of fields, from medicine and agriculture to electricity production and industry. A human activity that involves only hazards and no benefits calls for a legal regime of prohibition, not regulation. Thus a basic feature of nuclear energy legislation is its dual focus on risks and benefits.

The purpose and function of nuclear law is that of all law, namely to promote and to protect; to promote the development of nuclear science and technology and to protect mankind against any hazards possibly connected therewith.

On the promotional side of the palette, many kinds of public measures are found, such as outright subsidies for nuclear research and development, tax preferences for nuclear installations and nuclear insurance, indemnity and public coverage schemes for nuclear liability, "channelling" of liability for nuclear damage and other provisions which will be mentioned in the course of lectures to come.

On the protective side, nuclear law has two distinct aspects — the protection against radiation hazards connected with the peaceful application of nuclear energy and radioactive substances, and the prevention of non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy by means of the safeguards system developed for that purpose.

In 2003, the IAEA published the Handbook on Nuclear Law (the 2003 Handbook), which emphasized that the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in any State can only be ensured with the promulgation and implementation of an effective national legal framework to govern this technology. The IAEA has long been involved in providing assistance to its Member States in developing these frameworks, and demand for such assistance has increased dramatically.

Since publication of the 2003 Handbook, requests for IAEA legislative assistance have — if anything — been even more numerous, in large part due to the fact that over sixty Member States that currently do not utilize nuclear energy for the production of electrical power have recently expressed interest in pursuing this option. The current nuclear laws in many of these States are limited to non- power uses of ionizing radiation, such as those utilizing radiation sources for medical, agricultural and industrial purposes. If these States move toward nuclear power development, they will need to adopt legislation consistent with the various relevant international legal instruments covering the field (such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, among others) and with relevant voluntary guidance documents developed under the aegis of the IAEA.

The 2003 Handbook has already made an important contribution to enhancing national capabilities to develop the necessary legal frameworks by setting out the general scheme of nuclear law. However, a number of important developments in nuclear law have occurred since its publication. These developments are discussed in the present volume.

See also: Nuclear Power = Crime Against Humanity

IAEA news

here they are - the people who are in charge of this stuff

World leaders gather for a group photograph at the Kiev Summit on Safe and Innovative Use of Nuclear Energy in Kiev April 19, 2011. The world community, spurred by the nuclear crisis in Japan, on Tuesday pledged 550 million euros (483 million pounds) extra cash to help build a new containment shell at the site of the 1986 Chernobyl accident.

Fukushima Nuclear Accident
Regularly Updated | The latest IAEA information on the radiological situation in Japan, updated as information becomes available and verified.

IAEA Chief Visits Chernobyl Accident Site, Calls for Strengthened Nuclear Safety
20 April 2011 | On Wednesday, 20 April 2011, together with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano visited the site of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, which took place on 26 April 1986.

IAEA Chief Attends Kiev Nuclear Energy Summit
19 April 2011 | IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano began his two-day visit to Ukraine, where he met the French Prime Minister Francois Fillon and subsequently attended the Kiev Summit for Safe and Innovative Use of Nuclear Energy.
19 April, 2011,Kyiv - United Nations Secretary - General Ban Ki - moon emphasized the need of global rethink on nuclear safety at the Summit on the Safe and Innovative Use of Nuclear Energy.

Nuclear Safety Convention Meeting Commits to Learn Lessons from Fukushima Nuclear Accident
14 April 2011 | The 5th Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS), being held in Vienna, Austria, concluded on 14 April 2011.

The United States of America Fifth National Report for the Convention on Nuclear Safety


The United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has updated NUREG-1650, Revision 2, AThe United States of America Fourth National Report for the Convention on Nuclear Safety,@ issued September 2007, and will submit this report for peer review at the fifth review meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna Austria, in April 2011. This report addresses the safety of land-based commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. It demonstrates how the U.S. Government achieves and maintains a high level of nuclear safety worldwide by enhancing national measures and international cooperation, and by meeting the obligations of all the articles established by the Convention. These articles address the safety of existing nuclear installations, the legislative and regulatory framework, the regulatory body, responsibility of the licensee, the priority given to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, assessment and verification of safety, radiation protection, emergency preparedness, siting, design and construction, and operation. Similar to the U.S. National Report issued in 2007, this revised document includes a section developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) describing work done by the U.S. nuclear industry to ensure safety. The prime responsibility for the safety of a nuclear installation rests with the license holder; therefore, Part 3 explains how the nuclear industry maintains and improves nuclear safety.

Nuclear Safety Convention Review Meeting Convenes in Vienna
4 April 2011 | IAEA Chief Amano calls for robust nuclear safety standards and full transparency at the opening of the Fifth Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna.


"NUCLEUS is your common access point to the IAEA's Scientific, Technical and Regulatory Information Resources"

NUCLEUS provides access to about 130 IAEA scientific, technical and regulatory resources. This includes databases, websites, applications, publications, safety standards, training material and more

< requires sign in to access data


see TOP OF BLOG for updates
see also: Three Nuclear Meltdowns, Radiation Leaked into Sea; U.S. Waste Poses Deadly Risks, etc.

March 13 explosion of Unit 3 of Fukushima I (Daiichi) - this is the reactor which has the extremely dangerous plutonium-laced MOX fuel. reactor core and fuel are said to be "damaged" (photo enhanced for contrast and enlargement with several layers of noise, sharpening and blurring)

IAEA Updates on Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

from IAEA Update Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident (28 April 2011, 18:00 UTC) -

White smoke continues to be emitted from Units 2 and 3. No more white smoke was seen coming from Unit 4 as of 21:30 UTC on 25 April.

In Unit 2 and Unit 3 fresh water is being continuously injected into the reactor pressure vessel through the fire extinguisher line at an indicated rate of 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power.

In Unit 4 water continues to be sprayed on to the spent fuel pool using a concrete pump truck. An amount of 85 tonnes of water was sprayed on 27 April.

Nitrogen gas is still being injected into the containment vessel in Unit 1 to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion in the containment vessel. The indicated pressure in the reactor pressure vessel is still increasing.

Spraying of anti-scattering agent at the site is continuing. An area of 7500 m2 to the east of the Unit 3 turbine building was sprayed on 27 April.

Deposition of Cs-137 was detected in four prefectures on 26 and 27 April, the values reported ranging from 4 Bq/m2 to 29 Bq/m2. I-131 deposition was reported for one prefecture on 26 April, with a value of 3.3 Bq/m2.

Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures. A general decreasing trend has been observed in all locations since around 20 March. For the Fukushima prefecture gamma dose rates remain at 1.8 μSv/h. In Ibaraki prefecture gamma dose rates were slightly below 0.12 µSv/h. The other 45 prefectures had gamma dose rates of below 0.1 µSv/h, falling within the range of local natural background radiation levels. Gamma dose rates reported specifically for the eastern part of Fukushima prefecture, for distances beyond 30 km from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, showed a similar general decreasing trend, ranging from 0.1 to 13.6 µSv/h, as reported on 26 April.

The analysis for almost all [sea water] sampling positions has shown a general decreasing trend in concentrations of the relevant radionuclides over time. Samples from the coastal positions still show higher concentrations of such radionuclides than samples from the off-shore positions. The radionuclides I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 are still detected in most sea water samples, but no longer for some of the off-shore positions.

After Fukushima: Rethinking the Case for Nuclear Power’s Expansion
Federation of American Scientists

On April 11, FAS hosted a Capitol Hill briefing by Henry Sokolski, Executive Director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center. Mr. Sokolski discussed the implications of the Fukushima accident for the global expansion of nuclear power.

In the presentation, Mr. Sokolski emphasized that nuclear safety must come first. Then governments need to count the costs (environmental, safety, security, construction, etc.) associated with nuclear energy as compared to other energy sources. This will allow a much more fair assessment of energy costs. Moreover, he cautioned that there are nuclear activities that the International Atomic Energy Agency has great difficulty safeguarding and the merely providing more money to this agency will not ensure improvements to safeguards. Thus, he recommended that there is an urgent need to clarify what the IAEA can and cannot safeguard.

He further urged that the United States take the lead in establishing, implementing, and enforcing a gold standard for nuclear nonproliferation. Such a standard can be modeled on the nuclear energy cooperation deal with the United Arab Emirates in which the UAE agreed to forego pursuit of uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing because these activities could be used to make fissile material for nuclear weapons.

Nonproliferation Policy Education Center

The Nonproliferation Policy Education Center (NPEC), a project of the Institute for International Studies (IIS), is a nonpartisan, nonprofit, educational organization founded in 1994 to promote a better understanding of strategic weapons proliferation issues. NPEC educates policymakers, journalists, and university professors about proliferation threats and possible new policies and measures to meet them.


Atomic Cover-Up: The Hidden Story Behind the U.S. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

See also:
TOP OF BLOG for more recent posts
• Fukushima & related updates for nuclear news, background info, links and actions -
Truth About Nuclear Power | Lethal Levels of Radiation
Diablo Canyon | Need To Know | It Can Happen Here
You can't see it, and you can't smell it either | Nuclear Nightmare Unfolding
Three Nuclear Meltdowns, Radiation Leaked into Sea; U.S. Waste Poses Deadly Risks
Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe Update | Related News
Nuclear Safety is an Oxymoron | How will broken-melting-fuming-leaking Fukushima Daiichi weather Monster Typhoon?
What's going on at Japan's damaged nuclear power plant?
End the nuclear loan program now | Quaint Vermont fixer-upper
Fukushima Nuclear Meltdown Confirmed
abolish atomic - new art | news from Beyond Nuclear | TAKE ACTION
Learning from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster? | Unsafe at Any Dose
We do not want atom!
Fallout? | Delay Licensing! | Evacutation? | Taxes?
>Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945 | Downwinders | Nuclear Law
25th Anniversary of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster | NUCLEAR "SAFTEY" = NUCLEAR THREAT
Anti-nuclear movement | California Nukes
Arnie Gundersen on Current Fukushima Daiichi Situation
Deepak Chopra homebase: Fukushima ~ Indian Point, NY
Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth
Fukushima a "Ticking Time Bomb"
Nuclear Catastrophe in Japan “Not Equal to Chernobyl, But Way Worse”
Nuclear Power = Crime Against Humanity
Obama: No Money for Nukes!
Pacifica Nuclear Teach-in | The Code Killers by Ace Hoffman
Nuclear Obama, Radioactive Boars & Frogs of Fukushima
fukushima plutonium
Fukushima still fuming - nuclear catastrophe update

news feeds on right, and links at top of previous posts
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